Pressure lamellar production as an adaptive choice in Mesolithic-Eneolithic of south-western Ukraine
Dmytro Kiosak  1@  
1 : Odessa I.I.Mechnikov National University, Odessa  (ONU)

The origin of pressure technique in Mesolithic was actively discussed during the last decade. Several hypotheses were put forward. On the other hand pressure technique plays a certain role while detecting "Mesolithic heritage" in Neolithic contexts.

Most authors search for origin of pressure technique in terms of centers of innovative discoveries. However, reception of new technological hint could not be a mere adoption. This technique should find some systematic correspondences in technical sphere of a recipient society. There should be an internal need for application of innovative technique even if it was already used by some neighbors.

Several collections from Mesolithic-Eneolithic Ukraine were studied from this point of view. It appears that pressure technique originated quite early here, at least, in VIII mill. BC as evidenced by materials of Myrne, Kamyana Mohyla 1 etc. Bearers of Criş and Linearbandkeramik cultures also employed this technique to limited extent, in peculiar, "frontier" contexts. A revival of pressure lamellar production is seen during Precucuteni expansion (4800-4400 calBC).

This pattern of "blinking presence" is poorly consistent with cultural-historical explanations based on transmissions, inheritance and cultural contacts. It seems that pressure technique was recalled from latent technological repertoire of prehistoric craftsmen in a situation of need. Looking for common grounds in various episodes of pressure technique resurrection, one can search for common environmental and societal variables. At the moment it appears that pressure technique was needed to provide an economic and optimal (but labor-demanding) utilization of the smallest possible volumes of raw material. This feature was required under conditions of uncertainty of raw material acquisition and increased mobility of population. Such situations were observed 1) during the "green revolution of the Early Holocene; 2) in the "frontier" zones of expanding Neolithic communities; 3) during crisis of logistical networks for raw material acquisition at the fringe of Eneolithic.

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