The transition periods in Mesolithic and Neolithic of the Northern Cis-Caspian region
Alexander Vybornov  1@  , Marianna Kulkova@
1 : Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education

The Northern Cis-Caspian region is important for consideration of Neolithic processes. In Russian archaeological science the term Neolithic is connected with appearance of ceramics. There are two periods of development: the Early period is presented by the Kairshak ceramic type, but the Later period is the Tenteksor type. On the base of radiocarbon dates the lower chronological boundary was set about 6200 BC. The most archaic material complexes with the Mesolithic features were dated to 6500 BC. The sites in the interval from 6400 to 6300 BC did not found because in this time strong aridization was registered in this region. In the same time for the Mezolithic sites of Zhekolgan type the dates from 8200 to 6300 BC were obtained. This is an evidence of long period of development of this culture. Probably, in the period from 6500 to 6200 BC there were occupied of this territory by both groups of people without pottery and with the most ancient type of ceramics. Another Mesolithic culture – the Istaiskaya, which existed on this territory together with later stage of the Zelkoganskaya culture, has more later typological features. Exactly this culture can exist together with Neolithic culture. It is possible the period from 6500-6200 BC can be a transition stage from the Later Mesolithic to the Early Neolithic.

The upper chronological boarder of the Tenteksor culture (5500 BC) overlaps the early dates of the Cis-Caspian culture. The Eneolithic affiliation of this culture is under the question because of any metal had been not found among artifacts. Besides, the changes in tool technology and the appearance of domestication were registered in materials of this culture. This can be an evidence of new periodization affiliation of this culture. Therefore, it is reasonably to consider some transition period from the Later Neolithic to the Early Eneolithic on this territory. 

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